A Little Time With The 1689: Day 109

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Day 109

Of the fall of Man, of Sin, and of the Punishment thereof.

Chapter 6, Paragraph 3.

They being the root, and by God’s appointment, standing in the room, and stead of all mankind; the guilt of the sin was imputed, and corrupted nature conveyed, to all their posterity descending from them by ordinary generation,...

Scripture Lookup

Romans 5:12-19

1 Corinthians 15:21,22,45,49

Reflection

“Legacy” is a popular term nowadays. People are concerned about what kind of legacy they will  leave after they are gone. What deeds will they be remembered for? What family life did they establish? Adam and Eve did leave a legacy behind them, but it is safe to say that what they left, imputation of guilt and a corrupted nature, is not something anyone would desire to have. Yet our first parents definitely had a profound impact on all the generations that have come after them.

Adam represented the human race when he disobeyed God’s command to not eat of the fruit. This standing in our stead is sometimes referred to as Adam being our “federal head”.  He was in covenant with God, and failed to keep that covenant. As our representative, when he fell, we fell with him. His guilt is imputed to us. We are declared guilty due to his transgression, much like how when a leader of a nation declares war, the residents of that country are now considered at war with the opposing nation as well.

Not only are we declared guilty because of Adam and Eve’s sin, the corrupted nature they possessed after they sinned has been transmitted down to us. Every child conceived normally with human parents has this corrupted nature. Notice, though, that the Confession makes note that it is all of Adam and Eve’s posterity who descend from them by ordinary generation that receive this fallen nature. Was there anyone who was a descendant of Adam and was not born by ordinary means? Yes – Jesus! As a descendant of Adam, yet conceived miraculously, Jesus did not have the corrupted nature conveyed to Him.

Questions to Consider

  • If corrupted nature is conveyed by ordinary generation, then is the virgin birth an important doctrine?

A Little Time With The 1689: Day 107

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Day 107

Of the fall of Man, of Sin, and of the Punishment thereof.

Chapter 6, Paragraph 2.

all becoming dead in Sin,

Scripture Lookup

Romans 5:12 etc.

Reflection

Why do people die? Death is one of the realities of this world that early on we realize, but why it exists is not a subject on which much conversation is spent.  We waver between realizing the horror of death, to numbly skimming over news of it. But why is death so universal, so horrible? The Bible explains how death entered the world.

When Adam and Eve disobeyed God in the Garden, they created a rift that death rushed in to fill. Physically, their bodies would no longer keep going. They would die. But there was another aspect to death that Adam and Eve brought into the world through their transgression. Sin brought spiritual death. Without communion with God, who “is the alone fountain of all Being” (LBCF 2.2), there can be no spiritual life. We breathe, and eat, and move throughout the day, but our bodies are counting down until they finally stop. Our souls, however, are stillborn until regenerated by the Holy Spirit.

Every death is a reminder that we need Christ. “I am the way, the truth, and the life,…” (John 14:6)  “I am the resurrection and the life;…” (John 11:25) “…Christ, who is our life,…” (Colossians 3:4) Let us not shy away from the reality of death, but use it to point sinners to the One who gives life abundantly.

Questions to Consider

  • Is the truth that all are dead in sin a hard one to accept?

A Little Time With The 1689: Day 106

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Day 106

Of the fall of Man, of Sin, and of the Punishment thereof.

Chapter 6, Paragraph 2.

Our first Parents by this sin, fell from their original righteousness and communion with God, and we in them, whereby death came upon all;

Scripture Lookup

Romans 3:23

Reflection

We have a personal stake in what happened in the Garden of Eden. More than just a story of origins, the events recorded in Genesis 2 and 3 relate an essential truth: you are not good. No one is. Because Adam sinned, we have inherited death.

You see, Adam and Eve were not just the first human beings who also happened to sin. Adam had a particular role as the representative of humanity. God’s command to not eat of the tree was not in the same vein as a parent telling their child to not take a cookie. It was a covenant. Adam was promised life if he obeyed; death if he did not. As humanity’s representative, Adam’s action in disobeying meant that all of the human race suffered the consequences.

When Adam and Eve sinned, human nature was scared, marred, shattered, twisted, distorted, mangled, and made unfit to be what it was made to be.

-Richard C. Barcellos, Better Than The Beginning

This is the fundamental reason why we sin. Our nature is corrupt – it no longer has the righteousness that our first parents originally had. We all fall short of the glory of God, and without intervention are unable to have communion with Him. The effects of the Fall affect us universally and personally.

Questions to Consider

  • Have you ever reflected on how Adam’s disobedience affects you personally?

A Little Time With The 1689: Day 105

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Day 105

Of the fall of Man, of Sin, and of the Punishment thereof.

Chapter 6, Paragraph 1.

“...yet he did not long abide in this honour; Satan using the subtlety of the serpent to seduce Eve, then by her seducing Adam, who, without any compulsion, did willfully transgress the Law of their Creation, and the command given to them, in eating the forbidden fruit; which God was pleased according to His wise and holy Counsel to permit, having purposed to order it, to his own glory.

Scripture Lookup

Genesis 3:12,13

2 Corinthians 11:3

Reflection

The paradise of Eden did not last. God had commanded Adam, saying, “From any tree of the garden you may eat freely; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day you eat from it you shall surely die.” (Genesis 2:16,17). Immediately following the command of God we read of the creation of Eve, a helper suitable to Adam. Their relationship with each other and with God was harmonious.

Satan, however, through the serpent questioned Eve about God’s command. Notice in Genesis 3:1 how he turned God’s command on its head: “Indeed, has God said, ‘You shall not eat from any tree of the garden?'” We as readers know that this is not true, and Eve did as well. Yet in her answer to the serpent she showed her weakness. For she added that not only eating from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, but touching it as well would lead to death. While no disobedience had yet occurred, there was already confusion as to what was God’s command.

What deceit from the serpent! He not only contradicted God’s word – “You surely shall not die!” – but he appealed to a desire that on the surface seems reasonable – “you will be like God”. Isn’t being like God, the holy and wise Being, a noble endeavor? Eve saw that the tree was desirable to make one wise, so she ate from it. Foolish Eve! She encouraged her husband to eat, and he freely did so. They broke God’s law. Sin had entered into paradise.

We may shake our heads at the naivete of Eve, or try to make excuses for her. Yet how often are we amiss at knowing God’s word? How often do we hear professing Christians justifying questionable actions that God has not commanded or has even forbidden as attempting to be more godly? “God knows my heart.” We must be sure that we understand what God has commanded, and we must be sure that we obey His commands, not what we think would please Him. Thankfully, He has given us His Spirit to guide us into all truth and to enable us to obey. To Him be the glory.

Questions to Consider

  • Are you treasuring God’s word in your heart that you might not sin against Him (Psalm 119:11)?

A Little Time With The 1689: Day 104

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Day 104

Of the fall of Man, of Sin, and of the Punishment thereof.

Chapter 6, Paragraph 1.

Although God created Man upright, and perfect, and gave him a righteous law, which had been unto life had he kept it, and threatened death upon the breach thereof;...

Scripture Lookup

Genesis 2:16,17

Reflection

Meanwhile, back at the ranch…

When we last saw Adam and Eve in the Confession, they had just been created by God. Owning a reasonable and immortal soul, having the Law of God written in their hearts, and able to fulfill His law, they were happy and holy. While they had the ability to change their will and transgress the instruction of not eating the fruit, they were blissfully with God and creation.

We interrupt this program to discuss divine providence.

Swerving to the next chapter, the Confession discussed the Providence of God. Wait! What was going to happen to Adam and Eve? Why talk about providence at this point? Because by discussing how God upholds and directs all creatures and things, how He uses (or not, as He pleases) various means to fulfill His purposes, how even the sinful actions of men are part of His determinate counsel, and how He takes care of His church in a special manner, the backdrop has been laid to understand what will happen next with our first parents.

Tune in next time…”

For without an understanding of providence, it is easy to think that the actions of Adam and Eve took God by surprise. He had created them. He set them up in the Garden of Eden. He gave them a command which if obeyed sustained their life. They had the power to fulfill this command – why would it all go so horribly wrong? Yet God was governing all things according to His decree even then, and there in the Garden was disposing all things for the good of His church.

Questions to Consider

  • After reflecting on divine providence, does the account of Adam and Eve look different to you?

Morality and Education

In the previous blog, I addressed the second major issue regarding American college education – the promotion and fostering of the autonomous self. Although most social and academic commentators tend to believe that the entitlement mentality of the current generation of students is a relatively recent phenomenon, I believe that this is the fruit of a deeper problem that extends back multiple generations. Over the span of less than 60 years, the mission of college education has dramatically changed. We have abandoned the view that education is a virtuous endeavor (which seeks to train and disciple the mind) and have replaced it with a pragmatic view of education that primarily trains us for future jobs.

Moreover, the morality of education has also taken a rather dramatic shift and this shift has been consistent with the promotion of the autonomous self. Coupled with this moral change, I want to address the third major issue: the promotion of a morally neutral education. One important aspect of contemporary education which needs to be recovered is the belief that there is a transcendent, unchanging moral structure to our world.

An Overview

Throughout Western history, one of the primary goals in the philosophy of education was the transmission of morality or virtue. Furthermore, many people believed that there is a deep connection between academic learning (i.e. the development of mental aptitude) and moral learning (i.e. development of virtue and character). In other words, early education theorists understood that the development of the intellect and the development of moral character are intimately related. Just as there is orderliness in nature (which has been summarized in the laws of natural science) and in reason (which has been summarized in the laws of logic), so too there is a moral structure to our world. For many theorists, this implied it is necessary to determine the objective moral order of our universe and to restore it to a central place in the educational process. For this reason, many early education theorists strongly believed that moral education belongs in schools. Furthermore, many took this to mean schools are partly responsible to educate children in morality.

Now, this final point has been the subject of intense controversy, especially over the last 50 – 60 years. Both Christian and secular education theorists acknowledge that teachers and professors represent an important adult authority figure in students’ lives and are therefore capable of making a huge impression upon students. Additionally, both Christian and secular education theorists recognize that teachers spend a large portion of the day with the students, often more than even the children’s parents do with their children. Therefore, the teacher has ample opportunity to educate children not only in important academic subjects, but in character and values as well. For some Christian educators, this has been an argument for the Christian homeschool movement. For many secular educators, this has been an argument for why educated societies become inherently more secular.

The Myth of Morally Neutral Education

Within recent decades, the belief in a morally neutral education has grown in popularity and I believe that it is linked to the emergence of the autonomous self. The logic is inescapable: if I can autonomously define my own reality, then surely I can define my own values and moral beliefs. Hence, subjectivity applies not only to my personal identity, but it also applies to morality. The essential argument of a morally-neutral education is as follows: we live in a pluralistic society and so we can no longer stress the values of some, while ignoring the values of all. Therefore, in order to avoid these problems and to promote fairness in our schools, we must all agree to ignore all moral values. For this reason, moral education is no longer explicitly taught in colleges and college students believe that they are only receiving academic training.

The claim of a morally-neutral education is a myth precisely because many college professors openly acknowledge that they intentionally choose to promote certain values and to reject other values. We have all read articles in which professors intentionally speak about the incompatibility of evolution and religious faith. We have all read commentary in which universities intentionally promote LGBTQ lifestyles. We have all read stories of hostile environments towards Christian faculty. The honest reality is that the specious argument for a morally-neutral education is an intentional and morally secular approach to education.

There are two important consequences to this approach to education. First, college students today are surrounded by an allegedly academic setting in which the things they find most obvious are confusing, conflicting claims and the absence of any fixed points of reference. In a nutshell, America’s colleges have become centers of intellectual disorder. Moreover, since a morally-neutral education is typically mandated within college education, this usually means that universities confirm the intellectual prejudices of those who control the agenda of public discourse – the tenured-faculty within the universities. In other words, a morally-neutral education does not actually foster independent thought – it becomes channels of indoctrination.

Second, college students today have not developed the rational faculties needed to make proper moral and ethical decisions. Since moral education is no longer seen as a vital component to a proper college education, students typically tend to ignore its value as well. For many students, the required philosophical ethics course at many universities is just simply a general requirement that they have to take. Another way to state this general observation is that modern students generally do not believe that there is an objective basis for making ethical decisions. For this reason, many students do not take the time to rationally think through moral and ethical decisions. Again, this is consistent with the subjectivism that is promoted in today’s world and this also explains the widespread documented claims of college student cheating. This cheating epidemic is so insidious that it has led to a black-market industry of custom-essay companies.

An Assessment

From a Christian worldview, the issues discussed above are simply the outworking of the noetic effects of sin, primarily intellectual prejudice, faulty perspective, and dogmatism. We should expect that these types of sins will only become more accentuated as our culture continues to embrace this modern post-Christian worldview.

As mentioned previously, important Christian thinkers have always contended that there are transcendent norms (like moral norms), that human happiness is dependent on living our lives in accordance with this transcendent order, and that human flourishing require respect for this order. The most important task of education is to continually remind students of the existence and importance of this transcendent order as well as of its content. This is primarily done by training the mind to properly interpret and understand this transcendent order. If educators are doing their job properly, they serve as an essential link in the chain of civilization because educators are the preservers and transmitters of culture. Without this link, the chain cannot hold and there is an inevitable devolution of culture.

With the morally-neutral approach to education, modern American education has severed the link between virtue, knowledge, and reason. One of the goals of education is to pursue and discover the objective natural order to our world. However, we must not forget that there is also an objective moral order to our world as well and we are all subject to it. Modern American education seems to believe that it is profitable (and possible) to train the mind of a student without training the heart of a person. From a Christian worldview, we recognize this as nonsensical. An adequate education dare not ignore either the mind or the heart. Like any important human activity, education has an inescapable moral component and any effort to produce a morally-neutral education is merely the substitution of one set of moral commitments for another.

It is at this point in which a Christian view of education is superior. When a culture’s moral commitments have no fixed points of reference or objective basis, this means that moral education will become subjective, arbitrary, and irrational (as we are seeing in American education). However, when a culture acknowledges the objective moral structure that God Himself has built in this world, this means that we can recover the view of education as the discipleship of the whole mind and the training of our full rational faculties.

The Autonomous Self and Higher Education

In the previous blog, I addressed the first major issue regarding American college education – a growing lack of mental discipline from students. Although most social commentators focus on the negative impacts of video media upon college students, I believe that the root cause of these issues stem from the fact that we have re-defined education. We have moved from a view of education as a means of discipleship to education as a means of job training. Thus, it can be said that we have undervalued the need to discipline and train the human mind. Coupled with this change in education, I want to address the second major issue: the promotion of the autonomous self.

The self is our interior world, made up of our own thoughts, private intuitions, desires, yearnings, capacities, particularities, and all other elements that makes us distinct from other persons. In essence, it is the sum package of ourselves that makes us unique from all other people. I believe that the promotion of the autonomous self has had a profoundly negative impact on higher education, and I believe the development of the autonomous self is the consequence of three noetic effects of the Fall: faulty perspectives, intellectual pride, and vain imaginations.

As mentioned previously, we are all subject to these issues in varying degrees because of the Fall. We all have various intellectual prejudices that cause us to misunderstand and misinterpret the world around us (as well as the people around us). These intellectual prejudices also cause us to misunderstand ourselves as well. This suggests that prejudice is somewhat axiomatic. However, there is a difference between recognizing our inherent prejudices ourselves and claiming that reality is defined and shaped by the observer. This is a perspective that is being promoted throughout our society, particularly in education. What cultural forces have contributed to this and what impacts do these have on the quality of college education?

The Emergence of the Self

In his book The Courage to be Protestant, David Wells address how the self-esteem movement has dramatically changed the fabric of American culture. In commenting about the 1960s, Wells notes

In a nutshell, what happened was that our individualism, which had always been a potent factor in American life, turned inward in this decade. It withdrew from the outside world and during the 1960s, a new worldview emerged. To a great majority of Americans, it now became clear that the self had become the source of all values. The pursuit of the self was what life was all about.

In other words, the old world individualism has morphed into a new type of individualism. The older individualism in which you should think for yourself, decide for yourself, provide for yourself, and work to serve others in personal and civic ways has turned inwards. Now, individualism is about “finding yourself”, discovering your inner potential for your own benefit, developing positive self-esteem, and developing new ethical rules that serve the discovery of the self.

In this new style of individualism, self-esteem is elevated even above actual performance. This is a trend that is tracked by numerous academics in which virtually all students view themselves as “above average” in all ways. In this regard, we are producing a generation of students who are “cured” of their inferiority complexes, but whose academic performance lag behind that of many other nations. In therapeutic terms, we have all become adept at being our own healers and our own counselors, dispensing wisdom and comfort to ourselves. In other words, we are not challenging ourselves; we are soothing ourselves.

In our version of individualism, we have the emergence of the autonomous self. Instead of esteeming objectively-defined virtues, we have prioritized good subjective values. Instead of developing objectively-defined inner character, we have prioritized self-marketing, image, and personality. We have replaced an understanding of human nature (which is based on a presupposition of a common shared identity) with the new concept of self. We have drifted from what we all have in common to what is unique to each individual.

The promotion of the self has been the message delivered to many of us for the past several decades. When a child grows up, he or she is taught to embrace their distinctiveness and uniqueness. We are taught to develop our own values and that each person needs to be respected for their values. Moreover, each person is entitled to express who he or she is and each person should define the meaning of his or her life. The prevailing theory is that a poor development of the self explains all sorts of bad behavior and also explains failing academic work. We can now examine some of the impacts that this philosophy has had on higher education.

The Impact on Higher Education

There are numerous consequences of the promotion of self upon college education. The first obvious consequence is a growing sense of entitlement and overconfidence. College faculty members tend to believe that this sense of entitlement is fostered into college students because of grade inflation throughout high school education, but there is plenty of evidence of grade inflation within colleges and universities. This means that the quality and respectability of an undergraduate degree is rapidly declining – to the extent that some degrees are not worth the paper that they are printed on. If the statistics in the above link are correct, this means that all college students are literally above average (with an average GPA of 3.1). Because of these trends, there is a genuine sense that if a student fails a course, then it is the fault of the professor rather than the student.

The promotion of self in higher education has also led to an increase in the hiring of student affairs professionals while freezing or delaying the hiring of full-time faculty members. Furthermore, to meet this ongoing need, more colleges and universities are beginning to develop graduate degrees for Student Affairs, and these programs are even being expanded to the undergraduate level. Therefore, we are witnessing an increase of programs aimed at training people to guide, aid, and facilitate the “personal identity” development of students. And what all of these theories have in common is the promotion of the autonomous self. For evidence of this, please see the following cheat sheet of student development theories.

The expansion of student affairs professionals in higher education also indicates a shift in the financial priorities for colleges and universities. It has been documented that the financial endowments of many academic institutions have flatlined or decreased over the past few decades. Thus, the funding for these new programs/departments have come from four likely sources: (1) students (through increases in student fees and/or tuition); (2) private donors and/or grants; (3) at the expense of academic affairs programs; or 4) through cutting the budgets of current student affairs departments to create new departments/programs. In my view, the creation and/or expansion of student affairs has led to the growth of adjunct, non-tenured faculty within most universities as a cost-cutting measure. This is one of the key indicators that colleges have begun to prioritize the development of the self over the development of the mind.

Our Response

From a Christian worldview, we should see this, not as just a fad in modern American culture, but a rejection of the Christian view of man. The truth is that Western societies want to think only in terms of the self, and they want to use this psychological world as an alternative to the older religious world. This myth of the autonomous self is so well-established, preserved in place by so great a public desire to keep it there, that it borders on heresy to question it. Nevertheless, we should question it and confront it.

The question that we should be asking is whether or not we have the ability or the right to autonomously define themselves. The answer is emphatically no! We do not have the right to dictate who we are because we are creatures, not the Creator. We are not self-created beings who choose to define our own reality; our identity has already been prescribed as creatures made in the image of God. Our lives are not a grand experiment in order to discover our unique identity; we are a part of God’s work of creation and providence, which means that our purpose and function has been determined by God. This is our Father’s world, and reality is set and defined by Him. Consider the commentary by David Wells

To speak of virtue, then, is to speak of the moral structure of the world God has made. Rebellious though we are, we have not broken down this structure, nor dislodged God from maintaining it. It stands there, over against us, whether we recognize it or not. We bump up against it in the course of life and we encounter its reflection in our moral makeup. And from all sides a message is conveyed to our consciousness: “Beware! This is a moral world that you inhabit!”

God’s work of creation does not consists only of the physical structure of the world, but it also includes the moral structure of the world. This also implies that we do not have the ability or the right to define the reality that we live in. Therefore, education should not be a means to liberate our minds from prejudices so that we can discover our true selves in our own inner world. Education should be a means to confront our intellectual prejudices so that we can understand the world that God Himself has made.

The Baptist Catechism – Questions 17-23, Sin and the Fall

Q.17: What is sin?

A. Sin is any want of conformity unto, or transgression of, the law of God.

( 1John 3:4 )

 

Q.18: What was the sin whereby our first parents fell from the estate wherein they were created?

A. The sin whereby our first parents fell from the estate wherein they were created, was their eating the forbidden fruit.

( Genesis 3:6,12 )

 

Q.19: Did all mankind fall in Adam’s transgression?

A. The covenant being made with Adam, not only for himself but for his posterity, all mankind descending from him in ordinary generation sinned in him, and fell with him in his first transgression.

( Genesis 2:16-17; Romans 5:12; 1Corinthians 15:21-22 )

 

Q.20: Into what estate did the fall bring mankind?

A. The fall brought mankind into an estate of sin and misery.

( Romans 5:12 )

 

Q.21: Wherein consists the sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell?

A. The sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell, consists in the guilt of Adam’s first sin, the want of original righteousness, and the corruption of his whole nature, which is commonly called original sin; together with all actual transgressions which proceed from it.

( Romans 5:12-21; Ephesians 2:1-3; James 1:14-15; Matthew 15:19 )

 

Q.22: What is the misery of that estate whereinto man fell?

A. All mankind by their fall lost communication with God, are under His wrath and curse, and so made liable to all miseries in this life, to death itself, and to the pains of hell for ever.

( Genesis 3:8,10,24; Ephesians 2:2-3; Galatians 3:10; Lamentations 3:39; Romans 6:23; Matthew 25:41,46 )

 

Q.23: Did God leave all mankind to perish in the estate of sin and misery?

A. God having out of His mere good pleasure, from all eternity, elected some to everlasting life, did enter into a covenant of grace, to deliver them out of the estate of sin and misery, and to bring them into an estate of salvation by a Redeemer.

( Ephesians 1:4-5; Romans 3:20-22; Galatians 3:21-22 )

The Baptist Catechism – Questions 14-16, Divine Providence and Our First Parents

Q.14: What are God’s works of providence?

A. God’s works of providence are His most holy, wise, and powerful preserving and governing of all His creatures, and all their actions.

( Psalm 145:17; 104:24; Isaiah 28:29; Hebrews 1:3; Psalm 103:19; Matthew 10:29-31 )

 

Q.15: What special act of providence did God exercise toward man in the estate wherein he was created?

A. When God had created man, He entered into a covenant of life with him upon condition of perfect obedience: forbidding him to eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, upon pain of death.

( Galatians 3:12; Genesis 2:17 )

 

Q.16: Did our first parents continue in the estate wherein they were created?

A. Our first parents being left to the freedom of their own will, fell from the estate wherein they were created, by sinning against God.

( Genesis 3:6-8, 13; Ecclesiastes 7:29 )

LBCF of 1677/1689 – Chapter Six, Of the Fall of Man, of Sin, and of the Punishment Thereof

1. Although God created man upright and perfect, and gave him a righteous law, which had been unto life had he kept it, and threatened death upon the breach thereof, yet he did not long abide in this honour; Satan using the subtlety of the serpent to subdue Eve, then by her seducing Adam, who, without any compulsion, did willfully transgress the law of their creation, and the command given unto them, in eating the forbidden fruit, which God was pleased, according to his wise and holy counsel to permit, having purposed to order it to his own glory.
( Genesis 2:16, 17; Genesis 3:12,13; 2 Corinthians 11:3 )

2. Our first parents, by this sin, fell from their original righteousness and communion with God, and we in them whereby death came upon all: all becoming dead in sin, and wholly defiled in all the faculties and parts of soul and body.
( Romans 3:23; Romans 5:12, etc; Titus 1:15; Genesis 6:5; Jeremiah 17:9; Romans 3:10-19 )

3. They being the root, and by God’s appointment, standing in the room and stead of all mankind, the guilt of the sin was imputed, and corrupted nature conveyed, to all their posterity descending from them by ordinary generation, being now conceived in sin, and by nature children of wrath, the servants of sin, the subjects of death, and all other miseries, spiritual, temporal, and eternal, unless the Lord Jesus set them free.
( Romans 5:12-19; 1 Corinthians 15:21, 22, 45, 49; Psalms 51:5; Job 14:4; Ephesians 2:3; Romans 6:20 Romans 5:12; Hebrews 2:14, 15; 1 Thessalonians 1:10 )

4. From this original corruption, whereby we are utterly indisposed, disabled, and made opposite to all good, and wholly inclined to all evil, do proceed all actual transgressions.
( Romans 8:7; Colossians 1:21; James 1:14, 15; Matthew 15:19 )

5. The corruption of nature, during this life, doth remain in those that are regenerated; and although it be through Christ pardoned and mortified, yet both itself, and the first motions thereof, are truly and properly sin.
( Romans 7:18,23; Ecclesiastes 7:20; 1 John 1:8; Romans 7:23-25; Galatians 5:17 )